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Beginner’s Guide To Value Investing

Beginner's Guide to Value Investing

Value investing, as the name implies, is based on “quality”. The value investors and traders tend to choose stocks that are trading in the market at a lower value than their congenital value.

Value investors continuously look out for the stocks that are underestimated by the market. In terms of value investing, the stock investors know that the market tends to exaggerate both the good and bad news.

And this exaggeration has no or menial effect on the long-term functioning of the companies. Thus exaggeration lets the traders buy the profitable stock at a discounted price. 

Over the past 25 years, Warren Buffett has taken the concept of Value-Based Investments further with a focus on “finding great companies at reasonable prices” rather than generic companies at a low price.

If you’re still unsure about this type of investing, here’s a complete guide to value investing; read this article till the end to understand the topic better.

How Does Value Investing Work?

The core concept to keep in mind while pursuing value investing is that if you know the true value or quality associated with a stock, then you can save up a lot of capital by buying it at discount. 

For instance, the concept works just like when we shop for clothes or other items on sale. You know that a bag or a dress has high value due to its brand recognition and quality. But since it is now available at low prices on sale, then why not reap the benefits! 

This works in the same way. The price of the stock can swing upwards or downwards when the valuation of the associated company still remains constant. The sharp investors are just like shrewd shoppers. They both believe why pay higher prices for stocks or other products when you can buy stocks at a lower price. 

Obviously, the stocks won’t go on sale at particular events, and their discounts do not get advertised either. Therefore, a value investor needs to dig up and keep an eye on the market every now and then.

With this, one must spy on the market and dig up the gems from the innate deep market. When investors buy stocks and hold on to such value stocks for the long term, they can get stunning returns. 

How To Identify Value Stocks?

There are many factors that have to be looked upon to help find the intrinsic or congenital value of the stocks. Such factors include the financial history of a company, cash flows, returns and revenues, capital gain of the company, and more.  

A value investor might also do some detective work to find out the stocks of particular companies and those undervalued in the market. They must also look out if these companies have the capacity to pull up from such undervaluation. 

Some qualitative indicators also play a major role in determining the inherent value of such stocks precisely. Such qualitative factors can be if a company is involved in any financial scam or difficulty, the credit rating of the company, or the estimation of loss and profits during the previous recessions. 

Metrics For Finding The Inherent Value Of Stocks:

  • Price-to-earnings ratio (P/E):

This ratio depicts the relationship between the stock price of a company and the earnings per share. This data is useful for value investors because it depicts how much a value investor must invest in a particular company to earn a dollar of its earnings. 

When the earning per share is low, the P/E ratio rises and vice-versa. A high ratio implies that the organization or business is probably undervalued. You can find it in the financial statements of a company. 

  • Price-to-book value ratio (P/B):

This ratio depicts the per unit book value and per unit stock price of a company. When the stock prices are less than the book value, it means that the stocks are undervalued and vice-versa. 

  • Earnings before interests and taxes:

The earning before interests and taxes of a company signifies the cash flow of a company when not affected by secondary expenses and profits. Tax is the major factor to take into consideration here because it might cover up the real earnings of any company. 

  • Earnings before interests, taxes, amortization, and depreciation:

Both of these expenses do not affect the cash flow of companies. Hence, provide a more precise picture of a company’s earnings from its financial statements. 

Three Golden Rules Of Value Investing:

Here are three golden rules of value investing. Take a look at them!

In-depth Research: 

Take your time to do a fundamental analysis of the companies that you want to invest in. You must understand and learn the following things about a company: 

  • The fundamental principles of the business 
  • The long term goals associated with the company 
  • Team and their history of work (CEO, CFO, top management)
  • The financial structure of the company

Value investing is centered mostly around companies that pay out dividends on a constant and consistent basis. The reason is that the come age companies which have high profits often give back to their investors.

Value investors may not care about how the media is portraying a particular company but tend to understand the long and short-term earnings, and inner workings of the company. 

Don’t Invest in Over-hyped Stocks:

This is hard to swallow, right? Everyone in the investing world wants quick and high returns. But do not buy stocks that are hyped. If you are hearing about those hot stocks after they have been in the limelight for some time, then the chance has already gone. 

Rather, put time and energy into finding stocks that can complement secure and stable returns. It is unrealistic for investors to look for stocks that will boost up in the market exponentially and provide high returns. 

That kind of miracle is most of the time, impossible. Even if you find such miracle-bearing stocks, the truth is they are not going to last at that level for long.  

Therefore many clever and intelligent investors want stability rather than abrupt market-beasting stocks. 

Diversify Like A Pro: 

Do not make the bouquet of just white flowers. Would it not look bland? The same goes for value investing. You would want various kinds of stocks in your portfolio instead of making a bland of the same stocks. Creating a varied and diversified portfolio is essential in value investing for protecting investors from potential risks. 

Pros and Cons of Value Investing: 


Mitigation Of Risks:

In this, the investors mitigate risk by investing in stocks that are undervalued and underestimated in the market. So, the investors purchase potentially fair stock at a discount.

At the same time, when they diversify the portfolio, the risk is reduced further. But it is necessary to do a fundamental analysis of a stock. 

Exponential Returns:

When done with utter “attention to details”, value investing can prove to provide investors with above-average returns. The reason is that the value investors imbibe a safety margin on their stocks. 

Low Costs:

With value investing, you can purchase public shares that have high inherent value at power prices because of the market circumstances, do your research, and bag the gold from the deep of the earth. 


Long-term Option:

One of the major disadvantages associated with this method is that the value investor has to wait for several years to realize gains and profits. This investment will not provide higher profits in the short run. Therefore, investors have to lock up their capital for a considerable period. 

Time Gobbling:

It eats up a lot of time of the investors in research and other factors that must be considered before the investment. This can be a significant turn-off for many investors. After all, digging out gems from deep fields is somewhat tricky. One has to consider various qualitative and quantitative factors for a time period. 

The Bottom Line:

To some inventors, value investing may seem like a slow-paced investment strategy. But the slower and more consistent you are, the higher your chances of sustaining in the investment world. 

If you are a value investor who has the golden crown of patience and stock with your investments through the high and lows of the market, then you can earn high profits and returns with this type of investing.

Value investing as an approach is designed to serve the best in the long run. If you want quick returns, then this route is not suitable for you. 

Looking for an online broker to facilitate growth investing or any other investment strategy, we would recommend PrimeFin. It deals in a wide range of instruments like Stocks, Indices, Energies, ETFs, Commodities, Metals, and more. You can open an account with Primefin.

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